Renewable energy comes from sources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished.
According to the International Energy Agency, the deployment of renewable technologies increases the diversity of electricity sources. Locally generated renewable energy contributes to the flexibility of energy systems and helps establish resistance to central shocks .
This is a major issue for Rio de Janeiro, where the majority of electrical power is generated at remote locations, and has been subject to disruption.
Renewable energy technologies also provide a way for Brazil to diversify energy supply. Brazil is heavily dependent upon hydro-electric electricity generation, which in the past has led to supply problems.
The Brazilian Government has recognised this, and the energy expansion strategy for Brazil focuses on expanding and widening the use of different renewable technologies . It recently became possible for small and medium scale generation projects to feed in to the electricity grid .
This toolkit focuses primarily on renewable energy technologies that might be deployed for use on buildings in Rio de Janeiro. Since the electricity grid in Rio de Janeiro is low-carbon, we have also included a review of some energy-efficient technologies, such as waste heat recovery from cooling processes.
The following technologies have been reviewed in this toolkit, especially with regard to their suitability for Rio de Janeiro:
- Solar Photovoltaic Energy
- Solar Thermal Water Heating
- Concentrated Solar Power
- Solar Thermal Cooling
- Wind Energy
- Cooling Ground Source Heat Pumps
- Trigeneration/Combined Cooling Heat & Power
- Heat Recovery from Air Conditioning
Energy Efficient Design
This toolkit also includes a review of relevant design considerations that can improve the energy efficiency of buildings in Rio de Janeiro:
- International Energy Agency, “Contribution of Renewables to Energy Security,” IEA Information Paper, 2007. [Online]. Available: http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/so_contribution-1.pdf [Accessed: 20-Oct-2012].
- EPE, “PLANO DECENAL DE EXPANSÃO DE ENERGIA 2020,” 2010. [Online]. Available: http://www.epe.gov.br/PDEE/20120302_1.pdf [Accessed: 01-Oct-2012].
- ANEEL, “ANEEL Aprova Regras para Facilitar a Geração de Energia nas Unidades Consumidoras,” 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.aneel.gov.br/aplicacoes/noticias/Output_Noticias.cfm?Identidade=5457&id_area=90 [Accessed: 17-Sep-2012].